Dangers of Prescription Drugs for Seniors

Article by guest blogger Tara Heath.

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The Dangers of Prescription Drugs for Seniors

Health issues are an unfortunate but common result of aging. For that reason, many seniors take prescription drugs on a regular basis, and some take several different prescription medications each day.

While all of the drugs prescribed by doctors are considered safe and approved for use, that doesn’t mean that they aren’t without risks. Combining prescription drugs may end up being even more problematic.

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Doctors Can Make Mistakes

According to Well, a New York Times-based blog, a recent study shows that about one in five seniors that takes part in Medicare is being prescribed a drug that health authorities have advised against giving to seniors because of potentially severe side effects. While this problem is particularly common in the Southern United States according to Well, the fact that even trusted doctors may not always make the correct decision when it comes to prescription drug choices is a bit concerning, and something all seniors should keep in mind.

If you’re taking prescription medication or caring for a senior that does, take the time to do the research on the medication and evaluate whether it’s appropriate for their age group. This type of information can easily be found online, but a conversation with a qualified pharmacist or an opinion from a different doctor can be helpful, as well.

Side Effects

Unfortunately, the risk of side effects is always present with prescription drugs, but these problems are easily compounded in seniors – especially those with several medical problems. While most doctors don’t prescribe medications that have more severe side effects for seniors, each individual reacts differently.

Some seniors may not fully understand the side effects of a drug before taking it, or may not be aware of the fact that a drug could be problematic because of a past health condition. The side effects of many prescription drugs are also made worse when combined with over-the-counter drugs – something many seniors don’t think about.

Combining prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs also has the potential to lead to a variety of serious health problems, and all over-the-counter drugs should be approved by a doctor.

Seniors or anyone caring for an elderly individual should always talk with the person’s doctor about side effects and the individual’s medical history before starting a new prescription.

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Addiction Is a Real Concern

When most people think about prescription drug addiction, they aren’t thinking of seniors who are prescribed medicine by the doctors for short-term or chronic health problems. However, many of the drugs seniors take can be additive – even when they’re taken as recommended.

This is particularly true of opioid painkillers, drugs that affect the central nervous system to reduce anxiety and treat sleep disorders, and stimulants prescribed for anxiety and other problems like narcolepsy.

If you, a parent, or a loved one is prescribed any of these drugs, make sure the person taking the medication understands the risk of addiction and talks to their doctor about it.

Many seniors need prescription medications in order to stay healthy and function properly on a day-to-day basis, and for most, prescription drugs are incredibly beneficial, but that doesn’t mean seniors should simply take anything prescribed to them by their doctor without understanding the medication and doing research.

If you’re caring for an elderly family member or loved one, the task of researching medications and asking questions may fall to you. Take the time to check out any new prescription drugs or changes in medication when they occur to avoid as many complications down the road as possible.

Tara Heath is a freelance writer in Southern California. She knows how dangerous prescription medication can be and encourages those taking it daily to do their research first. As a health writer, she contributes to the Presidio Home Care blog.

 

 

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New Years Greetings! With a Bang! Serious Allegations Around Re PNGIMR. Reputation at Risk?

Hello Readers, and welcome to 2014.

I am introducing you to 2014 with a bang. Serious allegations of nepotism and mismanagement at the Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research aka PNGIMR as surface on the internet.

A blog that has been exposing widespread corruption in PNG www.pngexposed.wordpress.com has posted a blog with allegations that may have widespread ramifications within the PNG Medical Scientific community.

Read more about it here: http://pngexposed.wordpress.com/2014/01/18/nepotism-and-mismanagement-at-png-institute-of-medical-research/

 

 

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Precious Metals & Allows: How They Have Significantly Impacted the Metal Industry

Article by Guest Blogger – Gerald Jackson. The article below is by a guest blogger.

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Precious Metals and Alloys: How They Have Significantly Impacted the Medical Industry

The medical and dental industry relies on tools and instruments that are durable, reliable and can be machined to extremely precise measurements. Many of those instruments are used in life saving procedures where exact accuracy is needed. For instruments to work as they should and be able to perform the tasks they are designed for, precious metals and specific alloys are often used to manufacture them.

Gold, silver, platinum and palladium are the metals of choice for medical manufacturing companies. Because precious metals are often less substantial than steel or iron, other metals like copper, zinc or tin are added to them for stability and strength. The new alloys are stronger, more durable and will not corrode or rust like tools made out of iron or steel. Because of their unique composition, medical machining can be performed much easier, allowing for extreme accuracy and precision.

The impact precious metals and alloys have had on the medical industry is immeasurable. Instruments are not the only items made from these durable materials. Dental implants, cardiovascular implants and neurological stimulation devices are also made of high quality alloy-based precious metals. Drug-delivery systems and endoscopy devices also require the use of instruments made of special metals and alloys.

Medical machining of devices allows them to be manufactured to exact specifications. Being able to do so allows doctors to implant devices made of these metals into extremely tight spaces within the body. The ability to perform medical procedures that involve micro technology would not be possible without the use of instruments and devices made from these materials. The precise nature of many medical procedures requires physicians to use medical instruments that have been machined to 1/1000th of an inch, in some cases.

One of the main benefits of using precious metals and alloys is that they do not corrode or break down if implanted within the body. Metal screws, plates, pins, dental implants and neurological simulators are meant to remain within the body for long periods of time, constantly being exposed to heat and moisture. Because of how they are made and the types of metals used in the manufacturing process, these devices are capable of performing quite well within their intended environment.

Medical instruments that are manufactured by medical machining techniques are designed to be used during specific procedures must also be extremely accurate. The use of metals such as copper and zinc to stabilize and strengthen precious, weaker metals allows them to be used in operations where delicate precision and firm pressure are needed so the physician can work freely and effectively. Clamps and sutures are just two surgical tools that have been greatly improved with the use of precious metals and alloys.

The use of gold, silver and other precious metals also reduces the risk of allergic reaction or rejection by tissues within the body. Objects implanted or used within the body for long periods of time can be “rejected” by the body. When this happens, the immune system recognizes the implant as an intruder and begins to attack it causing pain, inflammation and other physical symptoms. By using precious metals to manufacture these devices, the risk of rejection and subsequent infection is dramatically reduced.

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I publish articles from time to time from guest bloggers. Email me if interested.

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Tackling Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea: Guest Blogger Article.

The article below was from a guest blogger – Claire Holt.

Tackling Tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea

 For twenty years the World Health Organisation (WHO) has recognised tuberculosis (TB) as a renewed threat to global health. Progress had been made in stabilising numbers affected by the disease with vaccines and targeted treatment, but the emergence of new drug-resistant strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis and shortages of medication has meant a decline in the effectiveness of treatments. This has been particularly devastating for health in Papua New Guinea (PNG), which now has the highest rate of TB in the Pacific region with around 15,000 cases, registered annually of which 3,500 prove fatal.

 TB is prevalent in the environment and can be transmitted through tainted food and water or by inhalation of droplets produced by an infected person’s coughs or sneezes. TB is highly contagious so that even breathing air close to a person carrying the bacteria can put you at risk. Only 10% of people infected will develop the disease. Eating a healthy diet and getting enough sleep and exercise can help to build immunity and guard against the severity of its effect as well as play an important role in recovery, but poor living conditions increases the risk of developing TB and hampers recovery, and underfunded care systems result in increased fatalities.

 Treatment problems

 A cure of even the common forms of TB involves four different antibiotics and six months of treatment. The symptoms usually clear up quickly although the disease is still present. This means that close supervision of patients is necessary, particularly as side-effects can damage the liver or eyesight. In PNG it is common for patients to receive only partial treatment, which means a relapse is more likely and the bacteria may mutate into a new strain of drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) or multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). New drugs used against MDR-TB may be less effective, require a longer course of treatment or be more toxic to the patient and more expensive, further straining an underfunded health system. The control of tuberculosis worldwide requires early diagnosis, effective medication and completion of a patient’s course of treatment.

 The view from Australia

 The prevalence of TB in Australia is low, with numbers at about 12,000 annually, 85% of which occur among people born overseas. The percentage of MDR-TB cases is stable at about 2%. Numbers of cases transmitted within Australia is low. However, the disease is able to spread south from PNG across the Torres Straits, with symptoms developing only months or even years after the patient has settled in Australia. In 2011 Australia increased its support for PNG’s fight against TB to the tune of $1.1 million. In October 2013 Australia’s Burnet Institute, an NGO dedicated to improving the health of poor and vulnerable communities, launched its Stop TB campaign. The institute’s infectious diseases expert Dr Emma McBryde had spent two weeks in PNG’s western province assessing the TB situation. She said: ‘Not only were there vast numbers of tuberculosis specific beds in every hospital but almost every bed in every hospital was taken up by patients who had TB or were suspected to have TB or were likely to have TB.’

 The HIV/AIDS and addiction problems

 Many TB patients contract the disease as a result of reduced immunity due to HIV/AIDS, which has increased in PNG over recent years despite progress in HIV/AIDS treatment – to a large extent because of the country’s diverse geography and culture and its communication and transportation problems. However, this trend has showed signs of stabilizing and declining in the last 5 years. High levels of casual sexual activity, alcohol and drug use, and the difficulty of educating the population about preventing the spread of HIV have made its containment difficult. The risk of contracting TB increases in people who consume alcohol in quantities above 40g per day, or if they have an addiction problem, either to alcohol or other recreational and illicit drugs, which is a major problem in PNG. TB and other infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS are particularly prevalent among addicts who inject drugs, although there is no evidence that injection drugs users exists in PNG. There is now also the problem of increasing acquired HIV Drug resistance, which alongside the growing problem of MDR-TB creates a picture of disease in the country that only greater investment in the health and education services will begin to solve.

 The challenge for the future

 Supply, transportation and communications are still major problems. The Burnet Institute’s Dr Emma McBryde said: ‘Occasionally people will turn up to a clinic to be told there are no drugs available. There are other challenges as well. People might live in a rural community but their treatment service might only be a short distance away by our terms, but if they have to use a long boat to get there and that costs money, and takes a long time, then it’s very hard to access healthcare.’

According to the PNG National Department of Health, one person dies from TB in PNG every two hours. The increasing incidence of MDR-TB makes the challenge of combating the TB problem even more pressing. The WHO 2013 update on the global response to the problem of MDR-TB shows that its 2009 targets for patients enrolled on courses of treatment fell short in 2011 by about 80,000 and that projections based on the current figure still fall short, with an ever-widening gap between 2009 and current projections. However, it does say that ‘48% of patients with MDR-TB enrolled on treatment in 2009 were reported to have been successfully treated.’

 New facilities

 In July 2013 a new TB ward with 22 beds was opened at Daru General Hospital with financial support from the Australian government to provide ‘targeted assistance to help the PNG government address TB in the Western Province.’ This is the first isolation ward in PNG that complies with international standards for the care of patients with infectious diseases, with 6 isolation rooms for patients with infectious TB and accommodation and washing facilities for careers. The Australian government also pledged over $30 million for the support of health services in PNG, including specialist TB doctors and nurses, community health training, a sea ambulance, laboratory diagnosis, the upgrading of Daru Hospital and Mabaduan Health Centre and improvements to Western Province primary health care.

The new facilities were opened by the PNG Hon Minister for Health and HIV, The Hon Michael Malabag MP, with Australia’s Parliamentary Secretary for Pacific Island affairs, Senator The Hon Matt Thistlewaite, who said: ‘This is the approach Australia supports and it is saving lives. Data from Daru Hospital shows that mortality rates from multi-drug resistant TB fell from 25% to 5% between 2011 and 2012.’

 

This blog publishes articles from guest bloggers from time to time.

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Corruption In Papua New Guinea Out of Contol!

Corruption in Papua New Guinea is out of control! There is no doubt about it.

Corruption is “Systemic” and “Systematic” to use the words of Sir Mekere Morauta, former Prime Minister of PNG. It is so embedded in the majority, if not all the public service departments and it has become the norm, the culture and the ‘way of doing things here’ so to speak. While every educated PNGeans is talking about it, the disease of corruption continues to grow and erode our the very fabric and the public service machinery of PNG. The private sector appears to be free of this disease. Or is it?

The little ‘gifts’, ‘tips’ or ‘bus fare money’ or ‘lunch money’ that is given to public service employees amounts to bribery in my opinion. However, from a PNG cultural perspective, it is a normal and accepted form of behavior. In most, if not all parts of PNG, it is normal practice to bring gifts of food or something of valuable to someone when you visit them for the first time and would like them to assist you in doing something, say building house, a garden, contribution towards a funeral or bride price ceremony etc. From my experience in living and studying in Japan, giving of gifts to business associates, colleagues or VIP personal in government departments when visiting for a first time is a normal behavior pattern. Unfortunately, PNG decided long time ago during and after independence, that giving and receiving ‘gifts’ by public service employees amounts to bribery and corruption.

And it is perfectly understandable. Why should I ‘pay’ someone for doing something that is supposedly outlined in their job description?

The thing that is frightening in PNG, in my opinion, is that the systems and procedures of doing things, particularly when it comes large sums of money is in itself designed to siphon public money to serve interest of influential public figures or corrupt individuals doing business in PNG. It appears, everyone is in on it! From the janitor up to the ministers. Everyone gets a cut for turning a blind eye and keeping their mouth shut.

To date no corrupt official has been brought to trial and convicted! Despite numerous commission of enquiries.

I am now beginning to wonder if the whole cycle of doing a corrupt deal, cancel the deal, set up a commission of enquiry is a systemic pre-designed way of siphoning public money. After all, large sums of money are spent in setting up an enquiry and writing a report. The bill run into the millions! Maybe there are people out there in PNG who are making millions by being members of a commission of enquiry.

In PNG, no one is likely to rat on another person involved in a corrupt deal because of fear for their safety and job security concerns. People  generally see and know what is happening but why would they report the matter? Everyone in PNG is related to someone and before you realise, everyone is related to everyone else, either by blood or marriage. That is the extended network of the infamous “Wantok System” in PNG.

Unless whistle blowers are protected, the safety of their families guaranteed and if it means being relocated to a different country, you wont get whistle blowers in PNG.

What is the effect of all these on PNG professionals like doctors?

You know the common saying: “if you can’t beat them, join them’. Or leave PNG and migrate to another country such as New Zealand or Australia so your family grow up in a stable country. It’s now about serving and protecting the interest of your own family. Not national interest!

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The Effects of Dietary Changes on Health in Papua New Guinea.

The article below was submitted by guest blogger Claire Wainright.

The article discusses dietary changes occuring in PNG and its impact on health in PNG.

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In the mountains and valleys of Papua New Guinea, traditional village life revolves around the family garden and its harvest of the three major staples: taro, yams and sago. Add to these the produce of the local landscape – the watermelons, peanuts, mangoes, coconut and cucumber, supplemented by proteins from poultry, fish or pork – and the traditional diet can be seen as much more healthy than the modern western diet that is rapidly replacing it. The traditional diet is high in nutrients and fibre, and low in fats. Oils are used sparingly in cooking, and milk and other dairy products are uncommon. The milk and dried fruit of the coconut are both used to flavour meals. These are all characteristics of the healthy diet advocated by critics of the highly processed packaged foods that are rich in fat, sugar and salt, which Pacific Islanders increasingly rely upon; together with the increased use of alcohol, these changes in diet are having an adverse affect on the health of the nation, with a rising incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

 An unbalanced diet

In Papua New Guinea, micronutrient imbalances in the diet are now common. Iodine deficiency is a particular problem so that goitre is endemic, although significant progress has been made recently to combat this problem through salt iodisation. Vitamin A deficiency is also a significant public health risk; this can result in a range of problems including infections of the eyes and respiratory system, and irregular development of bones and teeth. Dr Kemo Waqanivalu, World Health Organisation (WHO) South Pacific Officer for nutritional and physical activity, cites the lack of promotion of traditional foods as contributing to the problem as they are ‘unable to compete with the glamour and flashiness of imported foods.’ Historically, food was imported from Australia and New Zealand, but is now imported from countries much further afield such a China, Malaysia and the Philippines. Consequently, nutrition and ingredients labelling is inconsistent and not always in English, which is the common language in most Pacific island nations. Improvement of labelling needs to be encouraged for the monitoring of food safety and quality.

According to a 2010 WHO report, in at least 10 Pacific Island nations, between 50-90% of the population is overweight. This is a major factor in the rise of type 2 diabetes in adults, which is amongst the highest in the world. In Papua New Guinea it is estimated that in a population of over 7 million, 59,000 people have the condition, although only about 15% of these are aware of it. This is a worldwide problem where traditional diets are being replaced by fast foods and processed packaged foods high in carbohydrate, fat and sugar. This sort of diet stimulates the pancreas to produce more insulin, which is vital formetabolising carbohydrate and fat and for removing excess glucose from the blood. It also makes you feel hungry. Over-eating and obesity are the results.

 Alcohol

Throughout the world, westernisation of cultures has brought a rise in alcohol consumption, which has contributed to ill health. In Papua New Guinea, control of sales has been nonexistent and the selling of homemade, extremely potent and often poisonous brews is rife. There has been an increase in cirrhosis of the liver and cancer of the upper respiratory and upper digestive tracts associated with alcoholism. Alcohol abuse also brings an increase in social problems such as public drunkenness, street crime and road traffic accidents, as well as domestic violence – which can be directly physical, psychological, sexual or threatened abuse. This is often invisible. As Licensed Prescriptions explain: ‘Victims may often feel afraid to speak up, or feel that they have to cover up or make excuses for the harm that has been inflicted upon them. They may also make excuses for their abusive partners too, by claiming that what has happened to them was their fault, or was done to them because their partner loves them.’ The Hon Sam Abal MP, then acting Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, in a 2011 speech, said: ‘A domestic violence study carried out by the Constitutional Law Reform Commission found that 71% of the women interviewed considered alcohol as a major cause of marital problems. Of those who had been beaten by their spouses, 26% related the incident to alcohol.’

To a large extent, the increase of alcohol consumption in Papua New Guinea arose out of a response to the nation’s struggle against colonialism, and the village drinking club became an important symbol of freedom and autonomy, as well as of equality between town and country – although equality of the sexes was overlooked, with drinking being very much a male preserve. This problem was addressed by the Papua New Guinea government in May 2012, when it promised to introduce a range of new laws to control rising crime rates, which will include alcohol licensing; this will become a national rather than provincial function, and alcohol trading hours will be limited.

 Solutions

At the 2010 Pacific Food Summit, delegates agreed on a framework for ‘allowing each country to work towards food security according to national priorities.’ Food security was defined as existing ‘when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy lifestyle.’ This is jeopardised globally by population pressure, increases in food and fuel prices, unstable economic conditions and changing climate. Pacific Island nations are particularly affected, and the increasing reliance on imported and processed foods contributes to the loss of cultural knowledge and local production of food, which creates an uncertainty of supply.

For Jennifer Baing-Waiko, a return to indigenous food is very much a way of life. In 2007, with her husband Bao Waiko, she co-founded Savé PNG, an organisation dedicated to inspiring Papua New Guineans to embrace their indigenous culture, and to celebrate and protect their traditional diet. Savé PNG addresses the linked problem of public health, protection of eco-systems and cultural identity. As diet and the sources of food have changed, elaborate food management systems that were sustained for generations, which regulated the harvesting of fish, plants and animals, have been degraded. For Savé PNG, the relationship between environment, community health and indigenous diet are clear.

In a changing world, maintaining the benefits of traditional agriculture and food supplies is a daunting task. The quality and quantity of forest and gardening land has been depleted, but in a country with some of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet, Papua New Guinea is the perfect place to show the value of traditional economies in the face of a homogenous, globalised economy that is often detrimental to local cultures. Savé PNG is part of a new generation of organisations working to help communities in Melanesia to protect their traditional culture.

By raising interest in these traditions, Savé PNG is helping the unique bio-cultural systems of Papua New Guinea to survive and continue to provide good, healthy food for local communities. While there are various initiatives to preserve native food species, such as setting up community seed banks, these will succeed only if the traditions and celebrations surrounding their cultivation and use are valued. The stakes are high. For Jennifer Baing-Waiko, they go far beyond the sentiment of saving traditions merely for posterity’s sake. She said: ‘Indigenous food is very much a way of life. It’s as much about who we are, where we’ve come from, and how we are going to survive global climate challenges in the future.’

 

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Guest Blogger Article: Digital Hearing Aid Functions and Benefits

The article below is by a guest blogger.

Summary.

Hearing aid technology has significantly improved throughout the years. In particular, the proliferation of digital hearing aids takes into consideration the different listening needs of a potential wearer. In particular, most digital hearing aids that are readily available in the market today also have many different functions that allow the wearer to focus on sounds, decrease noise from the surrounding environment and even tailor a program for listening to music. Highly sophisticated devices also have the function of ‘speaking’ to the wearer to provide information about battery life and device settings. The standards of digital hearing aids have drastically improved to ensure that one does not need to compromise on quality of life even with hearing loss.

Digital Aid Functions & Benefits

Hearing aid technology has evolved significantly over the past several years and is continually improving.  Manufacturers first launched hearing aids with Digital Signal Processing (DSP) onto the market in the 80s. While these hearing aids were advanced technologically for their time, they were not publically successful due to their clunky size and high hearing aid battery drain.

Almost a decade later, digital hearing aids were once again re-introduced onto the market. By then, advancements in technology meant that the functionality of digital hearing aids had been improved significantly, and were able to be produced in a range of models, from behind the ear (BTE) to in the ear (ITE). While digital hearing aids came with a higher cost comparative to analog hearing aids, they were proven to be successful with clinicians and consumers.

Analog hearing aids essentially receive sounds and make them louder, with relatively basic features.  Digital hearing aids, however, contain a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) chip, which allows them to take in sound waves and convert it into a digital format. These digital bits can then be processed to deliver sound that is personalised to the wearers’ needs.

The digital hearing aids available today come with several different types of circuitry, providing consumers with a variety of options. Wearers can take into consideration their individual hearing loss and listening demands when choosing which hearing device is right for them.

With improvements in technology, hearing aids are becoming increasingly more automatic, and include more advanced features that are able to handle dynamic sound environments. Examples of these sophisticated functions and how they may benefit the wearer are listed below:

Automatic Sound Processing

This function means that incoming sounds are constantly processed to best amplify speech, while reducing unwanted background noise. Softer sounds are amplified more, while very loud noises are given little to no amplification.

Multiple Listening Programs

This allows wearers to have custom programs for specific listening scenarios, adapted to the users’ particular lifestyle and needs. For instance, programs could be set for hearing in a noisy environment, work meetings or listening to music.

Directional Microphones 

This function emphasises noises coming from the front, while reducing sounds from the sides and behind the hearing aid user. This allows users to focus on the people they are conversing with who are directly in front of them.

This function emphasises noises coming from the front, while reducing sounds from the sides and behind the hearing aid user. This allows users to focus on the people they are conversing with who are directly in front of them.

 

Directional Focus

This advanced technology is able to even further narrow down the range of focus on sounds coming from in front of the wearer. This can be particularly helpful for wearers in noisy environments, such as at busy restaurants or large parties.

Wind Noise Reduction

This lowers the uncomfortable noise of wind blowing across the hearing aid microphone. This can greatly improve the listening experience for hearing aid wearers who enjoy spending time outdoors.

Dynamic Feedback Cancellation

Feedback reduction is one of the great benefits to digital hearings aids. This function will continually monitor signals and adjust to minimise or eliminate acoustic feedback, which can occur as a high-pitched whistle. Advanced feedback systems can eliminate feedback electronically with little to no effect upon hearing aid amplification.

Data Logging

This function allows for the storage of data in hearing aids about the experienced sound environments and adjustments made while worn. The collected data can then be analysed by hearing aid clinicians, and used to implement modifications to improve the hearing aid settings for the wearers’ individual requirements.

Voice Alerts

Advanced models can “talk” to the wearer, providing important information about the program selected, battery life, and other settings. On more basic models these may be represented through beeps.

These digital hearing aid features reveal how advancing technology has radically enhanced the listening experience for wearers. Digital hearing aids today have improved the quality of life for many people with hearing impairments. Through consulting a clinician and taking a hearing test, wearers can assess which digital hearing aid functions are suitable for their needs, and choose a model that will most appropriately support their everyday life.

 About the Author:

This post was written by HEARINGLife Australia, one of the world’s leading networks of hearing care professionals. HEARINGLife has provided hearing services to Australians for over 70 years.

HEARINGLife aims to provide sufficient information about hearing loss by providing independent advice and to provide customers with options in a way that is easily understandable. More information can be obtained from HEARINGLife’s website and Google Plus page.

Website: http://hearinglife.com.au/

Google Plus Profile: https://plus.google.com/113633496277937312175

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